poniedziałek, 19 grudnia 2011

Jock Sturges


NOTE:

Please respect that WORDS like photogallery is about the artistic presentation of the nude body, not limited to so-called "erotic photography" and certainly not dealing with child pornography.










KONTROWERSYJNY I PEWNY SIEBIE JOCK STURGES

 
Jock Stturges „od zawsze” fotografuje tylko akty. Jego zdjęcia są znane, albumy i reprodukcje świetnie się sprzedają. Jednak od lat nie ustają kontrowersje związane z tymi pracami, czasem dotyka ich wręcz ostrze cenzury.
Fotograf urodził się w 1947 roku w Nowym Jorku. Studiował psychologie i fotografię, dyplom uzyskał w San Francisco Art Institute. Fotografuje do dziś, publikując swoje zdjęcia w albumach, pokazując w galeriach, ale też współpracując z takimi magazynami jak francuski, rosyjski i japoński Vogue, TEN, Vitals, POP, Exit. Obok robienia zdjęć Sturges także uczy fotografii – jeździ z wykładami po całym świecie, szczególnie zaś lubi Francję.
To właśnie francuskie plaże są bardzo często scenerią jego zdjęć. Fotograf pracuje właściwie w dwóch tylko miejscach: na plażach nudystów we Francji i na północnym wybrzeżu Kalifornii (lokalizacje zmienia w zależności od pory roku). Informacja interesująca dla miłośników oglądania fotografa przy pracy: podobno latem właściwie każde popołudnie Sturges spędza na francuskiej plaży, robiąc zdjęcia.
Wszystkie jego prace oscylują wokół jednego tematu: cielesności. Nagość jest dla fotografa wyrazem pełnego otwarcia się, sam przyznaje, że to, co go najbardziej fascynuje w jego pracy, to niezwykła relacja, zaufanie, jakie rodzi się między nim samym, modelką (lub modelem) a ich rodzicami czy opiekunami. Bo – co bardzo ważne – głównymi bohaterkami zdjęć Sturgesa są dziewczynki – kilku- i kilkunastoletnie, nieco rzadziej na zdjęciach pojawiają się także chłopcy. Ich rozwijająca się cielesność fascynuje fotografa, ale też sprowadza na niego wiele oskarżeń i problemów.
Sturges pracuje tylko na kamerach 8x10’, dzięki czemu jego zdjęcia są zawsze ostre, a każdy szczegół doskonale czytelny. Częściej używa materiałów czarno-białych niż kolorowych, właściwie jego zdjęcia bardziej przypominają prace w połowy ubiegłego stulecia niż z XXI wieku.
Modelki i modele (dziewczynkom i chłopcom czasem na zdjęciach towarzyszą dorośli) są pokazani bez skrępowania, nadzy i bezbronni, naturalni, jakby w ogóle nie pozowali do zdjęć. Na plaży, w ogrodzie, w lesie, bardzo często w wodzie (cykl zdjęć związanych z wodą tworzy osobny tom zdjęć Sturgesa). Pełne łagodności i niewinności zdjęcia nie wszystkim jednak się podobają – nie bez przyczyny chyba.
W kwietniu 1990 roku FBI aresztowało fotograf pod zarzutem rozpowszechniania dziecięcej pornografii. Zarekwirowano cały jego sprzęt i wszystkie zdjęcia, jakie miał w studio. Stowarzyszenia nudystów oraz środowisko fotograficzne USA bardzo ostro zaprotestowały przeciwko takiemu potraktowaniu twórcy. Wtedy też sąd odstąpił od oskarżeń, jednak część sprzętu i dorobku Sturgesa została podczas śledztwa zniszczona.
Od połowy lat 90. z fotografem „walczą” zaś organizacje konserwatywne, chrześcijańskie, a głównie katolickie, które także uważają, że tym zdjęciom bliżej jest do zakazanej dziecięcej pornografii niż do sztuki. W ramach swoich protestów stowarzyszenia organizują pikiety pod galeriami, w których są zdjęcia Sturgesa i pod księgarniami, w których można kupić jego albumy. Publikują ocenzurowane zdjęcia fotografa, opisując, jak szkodliwe są tego typu działania.
Sam Sturges mówi – bardzo pewny siebie: „To, w czym naprawdę jestem dobry, to tworzenie sztuki”. Mimo wszystko jednak jest to twórczość na tyle kontrowersyjna, że każdy widz chyba sam musi ocenić jej wartość.
Autorka: Anna Cymer


Za:

http://www.swiatobrazu.pl/kontrowersyjny_i_pewny_siebie_jock_sturges.html





































































































JOCK STURGES

American, born 1947 

Jock Sturges has long been a lightning rod for controversy for his distinctive brand of nude photography. Sturges shoots much of his work around nudist beaches in France and northern California, and his most frequent subjects have been adolescent girls. The photos have an undeniably erotic quality, unlike some types of nude photography that treat the human body more as abstract form. However, Sturges aims to draw out the models' own sense of burgeoning sexuality in a straightforward, personal, non-voyeuristic way. Sturges uses a large-format camera to create extremely detailed, finegrained images, while his strong feel for sunlight bathes his models and settings with a shimmering quality. In his writings, Sturges prides himself on the bonds of trust, friendship and collaboration between the photographer, the models and their families. Many of his photographs depict several generations naked together. 

Some critics have condemned his work as thinly disguised underage pornography hiding behind the mantle of fine art. To be fair, the market for Sturges's books certainly includes a great many adult males who like looking at naked teenage girls and who have little use for the photographs' artistic qualities. Sturges and his defenders sometimes disingenuously proclaim the "innocence" of his pictures of nude adolescents. In a more legitimate line of argument, Sturges criticizes the arbitrary division of people and their bodies into sexualized adults (over 18) and supposedly asexual children (under 18). The question really is: Should tasteful, non-exploitative erotic photography of adolescents be allowed? Is such a thing even possible? The photography of Jock Sturges presents a powerful case for the affirmative.
Not surprisingly, Sturges has faced legal threats throughout his career. In April 1990, FBI agents raided his studio, confiscated his equipment and work, and charged him with child pornography. Both the art world and the naturist communities publicly came to his defense. After more than a year of investigation, a grand jury threw out the case against Sturges. An expensive lawsuit eventually got Sturges his work and equipment back, though some had been damaged beyond repair. 

In the mid 1990s, his work came under attack again, this time from christian conservatives led by Operation Rescue (led by Randall Terry, best known for anti-abortion protests) and Focus on the Family (led by James Dobson). Protesters picketed major bookstores around the country for carrying books by Jock Sturges, David Hamilton and others which included photographs of nude adolescents. At some stores, protesters committed civil disobedience by openly vandalizing the books. And in two cases (both in the South), they managed to convince prosecutors to indict Barnes & Noble bookstores on child pornography and obscenity charges. Again, Sturges received strong public support from artistic and civil libertarian organizations. Sturges himself aggressively defended his work in a series of talks and interviews. 

Many of Sturges' works feature young girls and boys in the nude. As such, some critics have claimed that his work is child pornography disguised as fine art. In April 1990, FBI agents raided his studio, confiscating his equipment and his work, and alleged he was creating child pornography. The art world and naturist communities were enraged, and publicly defended him. After over a year of investigation, the case was thrown out by a grand jury. Eventually Sturges got most of his work and equipment back. Later in the same year, his work came under attack by Christian conservatives led by Operation Rescue and Focus on the Family. Protestors picketed at major bookstores around the country which stocked his works. Sturges received more support from civil libertarians and artistic associations. Sturges also defended himself through a series of talks and interviews. 

Jock Sturges received a BA in Perceptual Psychology and Photography from Marlboro College, and an MFA from the San Francisco Art Institute. His published collections include: The Last Day of Summer (1991), Radiant Identities (1994), Jock Sturges (1996), and Jock Sturges: New Work 1997-2000 (2000).
Criticism and legal troubles 

Many of Sturges' works feature young girls and boys in the nude. As such, some critics have claimed that his work is child pornography disguised as fine art. In April 1990, FBI agents raided his studio, confiscating his equipment and his work, and alleged he was creating child pornography. The art world and naturist communities were enraged, and publicly defended him. After over a year of investigation, the case was thrown out by a grand jury. Eventually Sturges got most of his work and equipment back. Later in the same year, his work came under attack by Christian conservatives led by Operation Rescue and Focus on the Family. Protestors picketed at major bookstores around the country which stocked his works. Sturges received more support from civil libertarians and artistic associations. Sturges also defended himself through a series of talks and interviews.

Published works

His published collections include:

* The Last Day of Summer (1991, Aperture, NY) ISBN 0-89381-538-1
* Radiant Identities (1994, Aperture, NY)
* Evolution of Grace (1994, Gakken, Tokyo)
* Jock Sturges (1996, Scalo, Zürich)
* Jock Sturges: New Work, 1996-2000 (2000, Scalo, Zürich)
* Jock Sturges: Twenty-Five Years (2004, Paul Cava Fine Art, Bala Cynwyd, PA)
* Jock Sturges: Notes (2004, Aperture, NY)
* Misty Dawn Portrait of a Muse (2008, Aperture, NY)
* Jock Sturges Life Time (2008 Steidl)

Other noted publications include:

* Montage (Graham Webb International)
* Standing on Water (1991, Catalogue of Portfolio published by Paul Cava Fine Art, Philadelphia)
* Jock Sturges Color (Catalogue of Portfolio published by Ataraxia, Bensalem)
* Line of Beauty and Grace (2007 Amadelio Films)Documentary

Limited Edition Portfolios of Original Photographs:

* Standing On Water (Paul Cava Fine Art, 1991, boxed portolio of ten oversized 20x24 inch gelatin silver photographs)
* Jock Sturges: Twenty-Five Years (Paul Cava Fine Art, 2004, boxed portolio of ten 11x14 inch gelatin silver photographs)
* Jock Sturges Platinum Edition of 10 signature platinum photographs (Russell Levin Gallery Monterey California 2007)

His photographs also appear as cover art on two novels by Jennifer McMahon, Promise Not to Tell and Island of Lost Girls.

See also

* David Hamilton (photographer)

External links

* Works by or about Jock Sturges in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
* Interview, by David Steinberg of MetroActive, 1998
* 36 Photographs by Jock Sturges
* View Examples of Jock Sturges Photography

* Robert Koch Gallery
* DazeReader profile by Evan Daze
* Photo flap - campaign against authors Jock Sturges and David Hamilton
* Link to more Photos by Jock Sturges
* amadelio: Interview with Jock Sturges, Montalivet, France, July 2007


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NUDE AWAKENING 

 

Photographers Jock Sturges and Fabio Cabral create images that are sensual but never pornographic.




It's a sorry fact that neither the left nor the right can be trusted to defend free expression. Liberals would like to censor anything that might hurt someone's feelings, conservatives would like to censor anything that might turn someone on, and with an ass-backward "kids first" mentality that turns adults into second-class citizens, both liberals and conservatives would like to restrict the rights of adults in order to "protect the children." (Such coalitions would be hilarious if they weren't so dangerous; witness the goofy anti-porn tag team formed by right-wing nag Phyllis Schlafly and left-wing hag Catharine MacKinnon.) 

As a free speech absolutist, I defend everything from Patti Smith's proud prolific use of nigger to the poorly-written racism of The Turner Diaries, the rough-trade sex of Pat Califia and Robert Mapplethorpe, and the hilarious how-to Anarchist's Cookbook. I find some of the stuff offensive, some of it sexy, a lot of it just plain boring. But nothing should be done to restrict its creation or consumption. (Neither should any artist get a penny of taxpayer dollars, but that's a different can of worms.) 

Thus, it did my Libertarian heart proud to see two recent collections of photos by artists who once had lots of trouble with the law. In 1991, the FBI raided the California home of photographer Jock Sturges and confiscated thousands of his images. That same year, Brazilian authorities raided the studio of photographer Fabio Cabral and seized his photos (they also raided the offices of Cabral's publisher, and a gallery exhibiting his work). In both cases, the authorities deemed the seized images pornographic. In both cases, the photos in question featured nude or semi-nude girls. 

The confiscations and legal troubles (both cases were eventually thrown out of court) ignited a firestorm of debate that, like those that once swirled around the works of Nabokov and Balthus, centered on the ever-thorny issues of nudity, children and artistic explorations of emerging adolescent sexuality. I'm happy to report that Sturges and Cabral are still producing the kind of work that got them in trouble 10 years ago. 

New Work features Sturges' trademark subjects: girls, young women and families, snapped on European nude beaches and in northern California. The comfort his models display in front of the camera is partly due to their familiarity with Sturges (he has been shooting some of them for decades), and partly due to their naturist environment. ("We are not naked for the pictures, we are naked for the summer, and because we are alive," one of his models says in an earlier collection.) 

In brilliant, grainless photos, Sturges' models exude innocence, sensuality and a growing awareness of their emerging sexuality. Wonderfully erotic but never overtly sexual, the photos are masterly, the print quality astounding. 

Cabral's Anjos Proibidos (Forbidden Angels) collects 51 black-and-white images, including all 24 of those seized in 1991. Reflecting his commercial and fashion backgrounds (and his Brazilian sensibility), Cabral poses his semi-nude models provocatively, and the results are mixed. 

Sometimes Cabral captures a natural sensuality in his subjects; other times he simply sexualizes his models. The difference can be subtle, but it's palpable. And while some of the photos in Anjos are strikingly erotic, others are borderline creepy (there's a big difference between a 17-year-old and a 10-year-old, especially when they're posed provocatively, as they are here). 

The differences between Sturges and Cabral are obvious. While Sturges explores the natural sensuality (and emerging sexuality) of his young models, Cabral manufactures it. While Sturges captures the beauty of his subjects, Cabral embellishes it unnecessarily. Compared to those by Sturges, Cabral's photos are more provocative, less artful. 

(It should be noted too that Sturges' models are almost always completely nude; his photos brim with bared breasts, buttocks and genitals. At the same time, with no bared butts or genitals, Cabral's photos are sexier. In fact, the difference between Sturges' and Cabral's photos is a lot like the difference between a European nude beach and a beach in Rio. On the nude beach, you'll find plenty of naked bodies, but nary a whiff of sex; on the beaches of Rio, where interesting body parts are (barely) covered, sex fairly crackles in the air, much like the thick smell of impending violence you'll find in most Indian bars.)

The legal cases against Sturges and Cabral were eventually thrown out, as they should have been. Their images are sensual, frequently erotic, sometimes sexual, but never pornographic. Their work should be viewed and celebrated for several reasons: for the beauty of the subjects, the artfulness of the photos, and to flip the finger at everyone who would restrict what artists can create, and what adults can consume. And the girls are pretty cute, too.